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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: Speanburg, Katie; Juras, Randall; Patel, Amar; Schneider, Glen
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2015

    The road to employment and economic self-sufficiency is considerably steeper for those youth who face some type of physical, sensory, cognitive, mental health, or other disability. The U. S. Department of Labor is actively addressing the needs and interests of individuals with disabilities through policy guidance, research, staffing and program support as well as technical assistance and training. The Department conducted a study to examine the public workforce system’s current efforts to serve youth with disabilities. The study profiles the implementation of various practices intended to support this effort and identifies factors that may pose barriers to the provision of targeted services. Additionally, the study provides recommendations to help shape future programs, policies, technical assistance and research initiatives related to serving youth with disabilities. 

    The cornerstone of this research is a survey of representatives from LWIBs on a range of topics relating to serving youth with disabilities. The data were gathered via an on line survey and completed by 69...

    The road to employment and economic self-sufficiency is considerably steeper for those youth who face some type of physical, sensory, cognitive, mental health, or other disability. The U. S. Department of Labor is actively addressing the needs and interests of individuals with disabilities through policy guidance, research, staffing and program support as well as technical assistance and training. The Department conducted a study to examine the public workforce system’s current efforts to serve youth with disabilities. The study profiles the implementation of various practices intended to support this effort and identifies factors that may pose barriers to the provision of targeted services. Additionally, the study provides recommendations to help shape future programs, policies, technical assistance and research initiatives related to serving youth with disabilities. 

    The cornerstone of this research is a survey of representatives from LWIBs on a range of topics relating to serving youth with disabilities. The data were gathered via an on line survey and completed by 69 percent of the LWIB Executive Directors or designees. This report presents a summary of the survey results. In addition to gathering general perspectives and challenges inherent in serving youth with disabilities, the analyses examined the extent to which LWIBs: (1) use customized assessments to identify participant needs and develop service plans; (2) provide training to build staff capacity to better serve this population; (3) expand their resource base through partnerships and combining funding streams; (4) actively target the out-of-school population of youth with disabilities; and (5) provide employment and community service opportunities.

    This study is the first to describe the programmatic and environmental context that shapes the provision of services to youth with disabilities by the workforce development system at the local level. Gathering first hand insights from practitioners provides important information that can be used to improve policy and practices for this population. (author abstract) 

  • Individual Author: Pager, Devah; Western, Bruce
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2009

    The study found a strong reluctance among employers to hire applicants with criminal records, especially Black ex-offenders; however, employment prospects improved significantly for applicants who had an opportunity to interact with the hiring manager, particularly when these interactions elicited sympathetic responses from the manager. Although individual characteristics of employers were significant for outcomes, researchers concluded that the personal interaction between the applicant and prospective employer was in itself a key factor in a successful hiring. Employer concerns about hiring ex-offenders included the risk of theft, violence, and drug use, as well as concerns about worker reliability and performance. An employer’s personal interaction with ex-offender applicants can help to relieve some of these concerns that stem from a stereotypical view of ex-offenders. Blacks were significantly less likely to be invited to a personal interview by employers. These findings point to the importance of rapport-building and personal interaction between prospective employers and ex...

    The study found a strong reluctance among employers to hire applicants with criminal records, especially Black ex-offenders; however, employment prospects improved significantly for applicants who had an opportunity to interact with the hiring manager, particularly when these interactions elicited sympathetic responses from the manager. Although individual characteristics of employers were significant for outcomes, researchers concluded that the personal interaction between the applicant and prospective employer was in itself a key factor in a successful hiring. Employer concerns about hiring ex-offenders included the risk of theft, violence, and drug use, as well as concerns about worker reliability and performance. An employer’s personal interaction with ex-offender applicants can help to relieve some of these concerns that stem from a stereotypical view of ex-offenders. Blacks were significantly less likely to be invited to a personal interview by employers. These findings point to the importance of rapport-building and personal interaction between prospective employers and ex-offender applicants. Also, preparatory work with employers should focus on defusing the stereotypical stigmatization of ex-offenders, providing information to employers on the rehabilitation successes and vocational training of particular ex-offenders that matches employer needs, and the enlisting of labor market intermediaries who can vouch for the qualifications of individual ex-offender job applicants. The audit study of team experiences was complemented with a telephone survey of the employers visited and in-depth qualitative interviews with an additional subset of employers. 8 figures, 2 tables, and appended supplementary data, information, and references (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Hauan, Susan; Douglas, Sarah
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2004

    Employment is a key component of the TANF program. With the introduction of work requirements under PRWORA, states now work more closely with recipients on encouraging participation in work activities to facilitate transitions out of welfare toward greater independence. Consequently, it is important to understand the potential limitations or liabilities that recipients may bring to the labor market, as well as the effect that these challenges may or may not have on employment.

    To address these issues, the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE) funded a round of competitive state and local research grants to study the characteristics and circumstances of individuals and families receiving cash assistance from the TANF program. Each grantee gathered and analyzed data based on a common survey instrument that focused on three broad domains of potential assets and liabilities of work for welfare recipients:

    • human capital assets/deficits (education levels, work experience, job skills);
    • personal and family-related liabilities (...

    Employment is a key component of the TANF program. With the introduction of work requirements under PRWORA, states now work more closely with recipients on encouraging participation in work activities to facilitate transitions out of welfare toward greater independence. Consequently, it is important to understand the potential limitations or liabilities that recipients may bring to the labor market, as well as the effect that these challenges may or may not have on employment.

    To address these issues, the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE) funded a round of competitive state and local research grants to study the characteristics and circumstances of individuals and families receiving cash assistance from the TANF program. Each grantee gathered and analyzed data based on a common survey instrument that focused on three broad domains of potential assets and liabilities of work for welfare recipients:

    • human capital assets/deficits (education levels, work experience, job skills);
    • personal and family-related liabilities (physical and mental health problems, chemical dependence, learning disabilities, criminal record, caring for a child with special health needs, and domestic violence); and
    • community-level challenges (transportation problems, childcare problems, unstable housing, and neighborhood problems).

    All studies were based on random samples of the population of single-parent TANF recipients in one given month. Survey data from all six studies — Colorado, the District of Columbia, Illinois, Maryland, Missouri, and South Carolina — were merged by ASPE staff, who conducted a pooled analysis of employment liabilities and work among welfare recipients.

  • Individual Author: Fraker, Thomas M.; Levy, Dan M.; Perez-Johnson, Irma; Hershey, Alan M.; Nightingale, Demetra S.; Olsen, Robert B.; Stapulonis, Rita A.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2004

    This final report presents descriptive findings from Mathematica's study of enrollees during the two years after they entered a welfare-to-work program. Most were TANF recipients with significant barriers to employment; although most were employed at some time during the study, many faced employment problems at the end of that period, and the jobs they held often left them in poverty. Whether a more comprehensive approach would produce better results is unclear, but the report presents design and implementation factors for programs to consider. (Author abstract)

    This final report presents descriptive findings from Mathematica's study of enrollees during the two years after they entered a welfare-to-work program. Most were TANF recipients with significant barriers to employment; although most were employed at some time during the study, many faced employment problems at the end of that period, and the jobs they held often left them in poverty. Whether a more comprehensive approach would produce better results is unclear, but the report presents design and implementation factors for programs to consider. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Corcoran, Mary; Heflin, Colleen
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2003

    This article describes how current and former welfare recipients receiving housing assistance differ from those not receiving assistance on various potential barriers to employment. The authors evaluate whether housing-assisted welfare recipients have different welfare and employment outcomes compared with unassisted welfare recipients. They examine eight outcomes: whether employed, whether on welfare, whether sanctioned, whether left a job, months on welfare, months employed, the number of hours worked, and the natural log of wages. They find more similarities than differences between women who receive housing assistance. In the authors’ multivariate analysis, they find housing assistance is not associated with the probability of receiving welfare or being sanctioned for noncompliance with the work requirement. Additionally, they find that support for the relationship between housing assistance and work outcomes is weak. Housing assistance has no effect on the probability of being employed, the natural log of weekly earnings, the percentage of months observed working, or the...

    This article describes how current and former welfare recipients receiving housing assistance differ from those not receiving assistance on various potential barriers to employment. The authors evaluate whether housing-assisted welfare recipients have different welfare and employment outcomes compared with unassisted welfare recipients. They examine eight outcomes: whether employed, whether on welfare, whether sanctioned, whether left a job, months on welfare, months employed, the number of hours worked, and the natural log of wages. They find more similarities than differences between women who receive housing assistance. In the authors’ multivariate analysis, they find housing assistance is not associated with the probability of receiving welfare or being sanctioned for noncompliance with the work requirement. Additionally, they find that support for the relationship between housing assistance and work outcomes is weak. Housing assistance has no effect on the probability of being employed, the natural log of weekly earnings, the percentage of months observed working, or the percentage of months observed receiving welfare. The authors find weak support for the role of vouchers in fostering attachment with employers and the role of public housing residence in increasing the number of hours worked on all jobs. (author abstract)

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