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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Ferguson, Daniel
    Reference Type: White Papers
    Year: 2017

    This Research-to-Policy Resource List provides a comprehensive list of city universal preschool initiative evaluations and research in the Research Connections collection. To count as universal, a city's program must aim to eventually provide universal access to publicly-funded preschool for all four-year-olds using at least some city funds, even if it does not currently achieve universal access. Some well-known programs do not meet these criteria, either because they are the city-based implementation of a state universal preschool program (Tulsa, Oklahoma) or because they do not aim for universal access (Chicago's Child-Parent Centers; Salt Lake City, Utah). Cities with universal preschool programs were identified in recent reviews by the American Institutes for Research and the Rand Corporation, as well as in news reports. A number of city programs have not produced evaluations or research publications or are still in the planning or early implementation stages, including Cincinnati, Ohio; Cleveland, Ohio; Dayton, Ohio; Santa Fe, New Mexico; Seattle, Washington; and West...

    This Research-to-Policy Resource List provides a comprehensive list of city universal preschool initiative evaluations and research in the Research Connections collection. To count as universal, a city's program must aim to eventually provide universal access to publicly-funded preschool for all four-year-olds using at least some city funds, even if it does not currently achieve universal access. Some well-known programs do not meet these criteria, either because they are the city-based implementation of a state universal preschool program (Tulsa, Oklahoma) or because they do not aim for universal access (Chicago's Child-Parent Centers; Salt Lake City, Utah). Cities with universal preschool programs were identified in recent reviews by the American Institutes for Research and the Rand Corporation, as well as in news reports. A number of city programs have not produced evaluations or research publications or are still in the planning or early implementation stages, including Cincinnati, Ohio; Cleveland, Ohio; Dayton, Ohio; Santa Fe, New Mexico; Seattle, Washington; and West Sacramento, California. The city universal preschool initiatives that have produced research or evaluation publications and are included here are: Boston, Massachusetts; Denver, Colorado; Los Angeles, California; New York, New York; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; San Antonio, Texas; San Francisco, California; and Washington, District of Columbia. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Research Department, Illinois Action for Children
    Reference Type: Report, White Papers
    Year: 2017

    The year ending June 30, 2016 saw several significant shocks occur to child care services in Cook County. An unprecedented restriction of eligibility in the Illinois Child Care Assistance Program (CCAP) imposed a period of great uncertainty on parents and child care providers alike. This challenge — and the state's continuing budget crisis — reversed Illinois' long-term trend of increasing investments in a robust system of early care and education. In just the second year of the state's efforts to improve child care quality through its ExceleRate Illinois quality rating and improvement system, child care providers faced falling enrollments, unpaid bills and staff layoffs. (Author introduction)

    The year ending June 30, 2016 saw several significant shocks occur to child care services in Cook County. An unprecedented restriction of eligibility in the Illinois Child Care Assistance Program (CCAP) imposed a period of great uncertainty on parents and child care providers alike. This challenge — and the state's continuing budget crisis — reversed Illinois' long-term trend of increasing investments in a robust system of early care and education. In just the second year of the state's efforts to improve child care quality through its ExceleRate Illinois quality rating and improvement system, child care providers faced falling enrollments, unpaid bills and staff layoffs. (Author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Phillips, Deborah A.; Johnson, Anna D.; Weiland, Christina; Hutchison, Jane E.
    Reference Type: White Papers
    Year: 2017

    The increasing diversity of young children enrolled in state pre-K and Head Start programs has prompted examination of varying impacts for identified subgroups of young children. We argue that questions of subgroup impacts and the processes that may account for them should be prioritized in future evaluations of these programs. Three subgroups at high risk of poor school performance provide the focus for our discussion: low-income children exposed to significant adversity, dual language learners, and children with special needs. We further draw upon new hypotheses regarding the kinds of processes most likely to support both short- and longer-term public preschool impacts as they apply to these subgroups. We conclude with a set of research recommendations aimed at identifying features of these programs that may render them especially effective in the context of today’s increasingly diverse classrooms of young children. (Author abstract)

    The increasing diversity of young children enrolled in state pre-K and Head Start programs has prompted examination of varying impacts for identified subgroups of young children. We argue that questions of subgroup impacts and the processes that may account for them should be prioritized in future evaluations of these programs. Three subgroups at high risk of poor school performance provide the focus for our discussion: low-income children exposed to significant adversity, dual language learners, and children with special needs. We further draw upon new hypotheses regarding the kinds of processes most likely to support both short- and longer-term public preschool impacts as they apply to these subgroups. We conclude with a set of research recommendations aimed at identifying features of these programs that may render them especially effective in the context of today’s increasingly diverse classrooms of young children. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Tach, Laura; Wimer, Christopher; Emory, Allison Dwyer
    Reference Type: White Papers
    Year: 2016

    Over the years, a wide range of policy efforts have tried to improve economic, physical, and social conditions within distressed urban neighborhoods. Even as many city centers have experienced a recent revitalization, the benefits have been shared unequally by urban residents. Increases in concentrated poverty as well as income inequality and economic segregation exacerbated by the Great Recession have highlighted a need for continued investment in urban neighborhoods. Tragic events in cities such as Baltimore and Ferguson have also brought renewed focus on addressing the pervasive economic development, housing, and safety challenges facing residents of the nation’s most disadvantaged neighborhoods. In response, the Obama Administration has prioritized “place-based” interventions that target investments to address the needs of these communities, whose residents often experience restricted access to economic mobility due to a legacy of policies and practices that have engendered place-based racial and economic inequality. In this summary brief (and the longer white paper), we...

    Over the years, a wide range of policy efforts have tried to improve economic, physical, and social conditions within distressed urban neighborhoods. Even as many city centers have experienced a recent revitalization, the benefits have been shared unequally by urban residents. Increases in concentrated poverty as well as income inequality and economic segregation exacerbated by the Great Recession have highlighted a need for continued investment in urban neighborhoods. Tragic events in cities such as Baltimore and Ferguson have also brought renewed focus on addressing the pervasive economic development, housing, and safety challenges facing residents of the nation’s most disadvantaged neighborhoods. In response, the Obama Administration has prioritized “place-based” interventions that target investments to address the needs of these communities, whose residents often experience restricted access to economic mobility due to a legacy of policies and practices that have engendered place-based racial and economic inequality. In this summary brief (and the longer white paper), we review place-based policy approaches that have focused on aspects of neighborhoods central to promoting opportunity, including economic development, education, housing, and neighborhood safety. We include policies and programs that have been subject to rigorous evaluation using experimental or quasi-experimental research designs aimed at identifying the causal effects of interventions. We also bring in additional information from implementation studies or other observational research to supplement the causal analysis. This summary concludes with a description of current challenges and recommendations for place-based programming efforts. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Owens, Anne
    Reference Type: White Papers
    Year: 2016

    The past several decades have been a period of change for cities in the U.S. and worldwide. Scholars and media alike have documented a “return to the city” movement that has revived urban neighborhoods, with residents of higher socioeconomic status remaining in or returning to city neighborhoods. During this same time, considerable economic and demographic changes have also been occurring, including continued immigration and internal migration, economic restructuring, and the Great Recession. Therefore, the trajectories of city and neighborhood wellbeing require a thorough examination to understand changes over time.

    In this paper, I use data from the Census Bureau to estimate city and neighborhood vitality scores by combining five socioeconomic characteristics: median household income, total population, proportion of residents with a BA or greater, housing vacancy rate, and employment rate. These five characteristics capture a range of characteristics associated with a city or neighborhood’s general well-being. I document how changes in neighborhood and city vitality...

    The past several decades have been a period of change for cities in the U.S. and worldwide. Scholars and media alike have documented a “return to the city” movement that has revived urban neighborhoods, with residents of higher socioeconomic status remaining in or returning to city neighborhoods. During this same time, considerable economic and demographic changes have also been occurring, including continued immigration and internal migration, economic restructuring, and the Great Recession. Therefore, the trajectories of city and neighborhood wellbeing require a thorough examination to understand changes over time.

    In this paper, I use data from the Census Bureau to estimate city and neighborhood vitality scores by combining five socioeconomic characteristics: median household income, total population, proportion of residents with a BA or greater, housing vacancy rate, and employment rate. These five characteristics capture a range of characteristics associated with a city or neighborhood’s general well-being. I document how changes in neighborhood and city vitality correspond to changes in the industrial and occupational structure, racial composition and segregation, and immigration. I also examine differences across regions and explore whether city changes correspond to changes in neighborhoods in their metropolitan areas.

    This paper documents changes in urban well-being among the 100 largest U.S. cities. Several cities are highlighted to demonstrate results, including Washington, DC, Jersey City, NJ, Oakland, CA, and Denver, CO. In addition, the paper includes neighborhood maps to explore variation within cities in Atlanta, GA, Oakland, CA, Baltimore, MD, Las Vegas, NV, Seattle, WA, Plano, TX, and Denver, CO. (Author abstract)

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