Skip to main content
Back to Top

SSRC Library

The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

Writing a paper? Working on a literature review? Citing research in a funding proposal? Use the SSRC Citation Assistance Tool to compile citations.

  • Conduct a search and filter parameters as desired.
  • "Check" the box next to the resources for which you would like a citation.
  • Select "Download Selected Citation" at the top of the Library Search Page.
  • Select your export style:
    • Text File.
    • RIS Format.
    • APA format.
  • Select submit and download your citations.

The SSRC Library includes resources which may be available only via journal subscription. The SSRC may be able to provide users without subscription access to a particular journal with a single use copy of the full text.  Please email the SSRC with your request.

The SSRC Library collection is constantly growing and new research is added regularly. We welcome our users to submit a library item to help us grow our collection in response to your needs.


  • Individual Author: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Family Assistance
    Year: 2016

    The report provides data through Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 and presents information regarding TANF expenditures and caseloads, work participation and earnings, the characteristics and financial circumstances of TANF recipients, TANF performance measures, interactions between TANF and child support, as well as specific provisions of state TANF programs.  Key highlights from the TANF Eleventh Report to Congress include:

    • In FY 2013, states received federal TANF block grants and supplemental grants totaling $16.5 billion.  In addition, 19 qualifying states received a combined total of about $529 million in FY 2013 contingency funds.
    • Combined federal TANF and state Maintenance-of-Effort (MOE) expenditures totaled $31.6 billion in FY 2013.  On a national level, states spent 28 percent of this total on basic assistance (largely cash aid to meet a family’s ongoing basic needs), 16 percent on child care, and 6 percent on work-related activities.
    • In FY 2013, a monthly average of 1.75 million families, with 4.10 million recipients, received TANF assistance funded...

    The report provides data through Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 and presents information regarding TANF expenditures and caseloads, work participation and earnings, the characteristics and financial circumstances of TANF recipients, TANF performance measures, interactions between TANF and child support, as well as specific provisions of state TANF programs.  Key highlights from the TANF Eleventh Report to Congress include:

    • In FY 2013, states received federal TANF block grants and supplemental grants totaling $16.5 billion.  In addition, 19 qualifying states received a combined total of about $529 million in FY 2013 contingency funds.
    • Combined federal TANF and state Maintenance-of-Effort (MOE) expenditures totaled $31.6 billion in FY 2013.  On a national level, states spent 28 percent of this total on basic assistance (largely cash aid to meet a family’s ongoing basic needs), 16 percent on child care, and 6 percent on work-related activities.
    • In FY 2013, a monthly average of 1.75 million families, with 4.10 million recipients, received TANF assistance funded either by federal TANF block grant funds or state MOE funds, including assistance funded through separate state programs (SSPs).
    • The national average overall work participation rate achieved in FY 2013 was 33.5 percent, and the national average two-parent rate was 32.9 percent. Eleven states failed to meet their adjusted overall standard in FY 2013, a decline compared to FY 2012.
    • In FY 2013, the average number of recipients in TANF families was 2.3, including an average of 1.8 child recipients.  About 50 percent of recipient families had only one child.  Approximately 75 percent of children receiving TANF assistance were young children under the age of 12.
    • There were approximately 811,500 child-only cases (those where no adult is receiving TANF assistance) in FY 2013, accounting for about 50 percent of the total TANF caseload.
    • The average monthly amount of assistance for TANF recipient families was $378 in FY 2013.  About 17 percent of TANF families in FY 2013 had non-TANF income; 11 percent had earned income with an average monthly amount of $836, while 7 percent of the TANF families had unearned income with an average monthly amount of $479.
    • At the end of FY 2013, 68 Tribal TANF plans were approved to operate on behalf of 280 tribes and Alaska Native villages and serve the non-reservation area of 120 counties. Tribal TANF programs served an average monthly caseload of 12,961 families in FY 2013, and grants allocated to the approved programs totaled $183,112,879.

    The report also documents current family self-sufficiency and stability-related research, describes federal efforts to promote healthy marriage and responsible fatherhood, provides national data on out-of-wedlock births, and presents child poverty statistics. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Hulsey, Lara; Leftin, Joshua; Gordon, Anne; Wulsin, Claire Smither; Redel, Nicholas; Schirm, Allen; Beyler, Nicholas; Heviside, Shella; Estes, Brian; Trippe, Carole
    Year: 2016

    The Direct Certification with Medicaid (DC-M) demonstration added Medicaid to the list of programs used to directly certify students for free school meals. The evaluation compared districts randomly assigned to either conduct DC-M or use normal certification procedures to examine whether DC-M leads to changes in the percentage of students certified, the number of meals served, Federal reimbursements, and certification costs incurred by districts. It also assessed State-level administrative costs and identified the challenges that states and districts faced when implementing DC-M. This report presents findings from the second year of the demonstration, school year 2013-2014.

    The impact findings for this study are internally valid estimates of the impact of DC-M for the participating evaluation districts in the participating states. However, this study was not intended to be nationally representative; study states and districts differ in important ways from states and districts nationally. Therefore, the findings cannot be generalized more broadly and interpreted as the...

    The Direct Certification with Medicaid (DC-M) demonstration added Medicaid to the list of programs used to directly certify students for free school meals. The evaluation compared districts randomly assigned to either conduct DC-M or use normal certification procedures to examine whether DC-M leads to changes in the percentage of students certified, the number of meals served, Federal reimbursements, and certification costs incurred by districts. It also assessed State-level administrative costs and identified the challenges that states and districts faced when implementing DC-M. This report presents findings from the second year of the demonstration, school year 2013-2014.

    The impact findings for this study are internally valid estimates of the impact of DC-M for the participating evaluation districts in the participating states. However, this study was not intended to be nationally representative; study states and districts differ in important ways from states and districts nationally. Therefore, the findings cannot be generalized more broadly and interpreted as the effects that would be anticipated from an expansion of DC-M to a broader (or otherwise different) set of states and districts.

    •  

    Key Findings:

    • In some demonstration states, DC-M positively affected certification outcomes and the percentage of meals served for free, but not the overall participation rate. In other words, for some states in the study sample, DC-M successfully reduced reliance on school meal applications and increased the proportion of students receiving free meals, although it did not affect the number of meals served overall. These increases resulted in additional Federal reimbursements in some states. However, there was no impact on district costs for certifying students. State DC-M administrative costs varied widely, but the per-student costs were low even in the highest cost states, and a large majority of the costs were start-up costs rather than ongoing costs. (author abstract)

     

  • Individual Author: Crouse, Gilbert; Waters, Annette; Hauan, Susan; Macartney, Suzanne; Swenson, Kendall
    Year: 2015

    The Welfare Indicators Act of 1994 requires the Department of Health and Human Services to prepare annual reports to Congress on indicators and predictors of welfare dependence. The 2015 report on Welfare Indicators and Risk Factors provides indicators and risk factors through 2012 for most indicators, reflecting changes that have taken place since the enactment of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) in August, 1996. As directed by the Welfare Indicators Act, the report focuses on benefits under the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program, formerly the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program; the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly Food Stamps); and the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program.

    Use of welfare programs, like poverty, is a continuum, with variations in degree and duration.  Families may be more or less reliant if larger or smaller shares of their total resources are derived from welfare programs.  The amount of time over which families receive benefits from welfare...

    The Welfare Indicators Act of 1994 requires the Department of Health and Human Services to prepare annual reports to Congress on indicators and predictors of welfare dependence. The 2015 report on Welfare Indicators and Risk Factors provides indicators and risk factors through 2012 for most indicators, reflecting changes that have taken place since the enactment of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) in August, 1996. As directed by the Welfare Indicators Act, the report focuses on benefits under the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program, formerly the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program; the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly Food Stamps); and the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program.

    Use of welfare programs, like poverty, is a continuum, with variations in degree and duration.  Families may be more or less reliant if larger or smaller shares of their total resources are derived from welfare programs.  The amount of time over which families receive benefits from welfare programs might also be considered in assessing their degree of dependence.

    Although recognizing the difficulties inherent in defining and measuring dependence, a bipartisan Advisory Board on Welfare Indicators proposed that: a family is defined as dependent on welfare if more than 50 percent of its total income in a one-year period comes from TANF (which replaced AFDC), SNAP (formerly food stamps) and/or SSI, and this welfare income is not associated with work activities.

    Given data limitations, we are not able to identify which program benefits may be associated with recipient work activities.  Thus, the definition of welfare dependence used in this report may characterize more individuals as welfare dependent than the Board had intended.  We follow the Board’s proposal as closely as possible by adopting the following definition of possible welfare dependence among individuals in families for use in this report: welfare dependence is the proportion of all individuals in families that receive more than half of their total family income in one year from TANF, SNAP and/or SSI.

    The report provides a number of key indicators of welfare dependence, recipiency, and labor force attachment.  Also included is a broader set of risk factors associated with welfare receipt and potential dependence organized into three categories:  1) economic security measures, 2) measures related to employment and barriers to employment, and 3) measures of nonmarital childbearing.  The key economic security risk factors include and supplement measures of poverty and well-being and are useful to ensure that predictors of receipt are not assessed in isolation.  Measures related to employment and barriers to employment also may be useful since families must generally receive an adequate income from employment in order to avoid welfare programs without severe deprivation.  Trends in nonmarital births are provided since the lower family incomes of single-parent families affects the need for and use of welfare programs.  Historically a large percentage of AFDC/TANF recipients first became parents outside of marriage. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
    Year: 2015

    Each year since 2003, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality has produced the National Healthcare Quality Report and the National Healthcare Disparities Report. These reports to Congress are mandated in the Healthcare Research and Quality Act of 1999 (P.L. 106-129). Beginning with the 2014 reports, findings on health care quality and health care disparities are integrated into a single document. The new National Healthcare Quality and Disparities Report (QDR) highlights the importance of examining quality and disparities together to gain a complete picture of health care. The QDR provides a comprehensive overview of the quality of health care received by the general U.S. population and disparities in care experienced by different racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups. The report is based on more than 250 measures of quality and disparities covering a broad array of health care services and settings. (author overview)

    Each year since 2003, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality has produced the National Healthcare Quality Report and the National Healthcare Disparities Report. These reports to Congress are mandated in the Healthcare Research and Quality Act of 1999 (P.L. 106-129). Beginning with the 2014 reports, findings on health care quality and health care disparities are integrated into a single document. The new National Healthcare Quality and Disparities Report (QDR) highlights the importance of examining quality and disparities together to gain a complete picture of health care. The QDR provides a comprehensive overview of the quality of health care received by the general U.S. population and disparities in care experienced by different racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups. The report is based on more than 250 measures of quality and disparities covering a broad array of health care services and settings. (author overview)

  • Individual Author: Crouse, Gilbert; Waters, Annette
    Year: 2015

    The Welfare Indicators Act of 1994 requires the Department of Health and Human Services to prepare annual reports to Congress on indicators and predictors of welfare dependence. The thirteenth report on Welfare Indicators and Risk Factors provides indicators and risk factors through 2011 for most indicators, reflecting changes that have taken place since the enactment of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) in August 1996. As directed by the Welfare Indicators Act, the report focuses on benefits under the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program, formerly the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program; the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly Food Stamps); and the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program.

    Use of welfare programs, like poverty, is a continuum, with variations in degree and in duration. Families may be more or less reliant if larger or smaller shares of their total resources are derived from welfare programs. The amount of time over which families receive benefits from...

    The Welfare Indicators Act of 1994 requires the Department of Health and Human Services to prepare annual reports to Congress on indicators and predictors of welfare dependence. The thirteenth report on Welfare Indicators and Risk Factors provides indicators and risk factors through 2011 for most indicators, reflecting changes that have taken place since the enactment of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) in August 1996. As directed by the Welfare Indicators Act, the report focuses on benefits under the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program, formerly the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program; the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly Food Stamps); and the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program.

    Use of welfare programs, like poverty, is a continuum, with variations in degree and in duration. Families may be more or less reliant if larger or smaller shares of their total resources are derived from welfare programs. The amount of time over which families receive benefits from welfare programs might also be considered in assessing their degree of dependence. Although recognizing the difficulties inherent in defining and measuring dependence, a bipartisan Advisory Board on Welfare Indicators proposed that: A family is dependent on welfare if more than 50 percent of its total income in a one-year period comes from TANF (which replaced AFDC), SNAP (formerly food stamps) and/or SSI, and this welfare income is not associated with work activities. Given data limitations, we are not able to identify which program benefits may be associated with recipient work activities. Thus, the definition of welfare dependence used in this report may characterize more individuals as welfare dependant than the Board had intended. We follow the Board’s proposal as closely as possible by adopting the following definition of possible welfare dependence among individuals in families for use in this report: Welfare dependence is the proportion of all individuals in families that receive more than half of their total family income in one year from TANF, SNAP and/or SSI.

    This report uses data from the Current Population Survey (CPS) and administrative data for the TANF (which replaced AFDC), SNAP (formerly Food Stamps) and SSI programs to provide updated measures through 2011 for several dependence indicators. Other measures are based on the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and other data sources.  Based on these data, this report provides a number of key indicators of welfare recipiency, dependence and labor force attachment...

    The report also includes data on a larger set of traditional risk factors associated with welfare receipt.  They are organized into three categories:  economic security measures, measures related to employment and barriers to employment, and measures of nonmarital childbearing...

    Finally, the report has four appendices that provide additional data on major welfare programs, alternative measures of dependence and nonmarital births, as well as background information on several data and technical issues. (author introduction)

Sort by

Topical Area(s)

Popular Searches

Source

Year

Year ranges from 1976 to 2016

Reference Type

Research Methodology

Geographic Focus

Target Populations