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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Barnow, Burt S.; Buck, Amy; O'Brien, Kirk; Pecora, Peter; Ellis, Mei Ling; Steiner, Eric
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2013

    Outcomes for youth from foster care have been found to be poor. The education and employment outcomes of youth and alumni of foster care served by transition programmes located in five major US cities were examined. Data were collected by case managers and reported to evaluators quarterly on 1058 youth from foster care for over 2 years. Job preparation, transportation, child care, education support services and life skills were the most common services provided to youth. During the 2-year study period, 35% of participants obtained employment, 23% obtained a General Education Development or diploma, and 17% enrolled in post-secondary education. It was found that the longer the youth were enrolled, the more education and employment outcomes they achieved. Further, job preparation and income support services were associated significantly with achieving any positive education or employment outcome. Results indicated that certain services provided over an extended period of time can improve outcomes for youth placed in foster care. For youth to achieve positive outcomes as they...

    Outcomes for youth from foster care have been found to be poor. The education and employment outcomes of youth and alumni of foster care served by transition programmes located in five major US cities were examined. Data were collected by case managers and reported to evaluators quarterly on 1058 youth from foster care for over 2 years. Job preparation, transportation, child care, education support services and life skills were the most common services provided to youth. During the 2-year study period, 35% of participants obtained employment, 23% obtained a General Education Development or diploma, and 17% enrolled in post-secondary education. It was found that the longer the youth were enrolled, the more education and employment outcomes they achieved. Further, job preparation and income support services were associated significantly with achieving any positive education or employment outcome. Results indicated that certain services provided over an extended period of time can improve outcomes for youth placed in foster care. For youth to achieve positive outcomes as they transition to adulthood, additional services are necessary. Other implications are discussed. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Zhang, Nanhua; Baker, Harolyn W.; Tufts, Margaret; Raymond, Randall E.; Salihu, Hamisu; Elliott, Micheal R.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2013

    Objectives We assessed the long-term effect of early childhood lead exposure on academic achievement in mathematics, science, and reading among elementary and junior high school children.

    Methods We linked early childhood blood lead testing surveillance data from the Detroit Department of Health and Wellness Promotion to educational testing data from the Detroit, Michigan, public schools. We used the linked data to investigate the effect of early childhood lead exposure on academic achievement among school-aged children, both marginally and adjusted for grade level, gender, race, language, maternal education, and socioeconomic status.

    Results High blood lead levels before age 6 years were strongly associated with poor academic achievement in grades 3, 5, and 8. The odds of scoring less than proficient for those whose blood lead levels were greater than 10 micrograms per deciliter were more than twice the odds for those whose blood lead levels were less than 1 micrograms per deciliter after adjustment for potential...

    Objectives We assessed the long-term effect of early childhood lead exposure on academic achievement in mathematics, science, and reading among elementary and junior high school children.

    Methods We linked early childhood blood lead testing surveillance data from the Detroit Department of Health and Wellness Promotion to educational testing data from the Detroit, Michigan, public schools. We used the linked data to investigate the effect of early childhood lead exposure on academic achievement among school-aged children, both marginally and adjusted for grade level, gender, race, language, maternal education, and socioeconomic status.

    Results High blood lead levels before age 6 years were strongly associated with poor academic achievement in grades 3, 5, and 8. The odds of scoring less than proficient for those whose blood lead levels were greater than 10 micrograms per deciliter were more than twice the odds for those whose blood lead levels were less than 1 micrograms per deciliter after adjustment for potential confounders.

    Conclusions Early childhood lead exposure was negatively associated with academic achievement in elementary and junior high school, after adjusting for key potential confounders. The control of lead poisoning should focus on primary prevention of lead exposure in children and development of special education programs for students with lead poisoning. (Author Abstract)

     

  • Individual Author: Allard, Scott; Danziger, Sandra; Wathen, Maria
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2012

    The Great Recession has led to record job losses, persistently high rates of unemployment, and lower earnings for many households, all of which have led to increased poverty. A number of public and private sources of support may help low-income families cope with the effects of the recession. Cash and in-kind safety net programs such as Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly food stamps), the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), public health insurance programs, such as Medicaid, and Unemployment Insurance (UI) delivered more than $300 billion in benefits to tens of millions of low-income households in 2009.

    In addition, private charitable nonprofit organizations and informal private social support provide assistance both to households that receive public benefits and to those not eligible for public benefits. Private supports help families cope with job loss, diminished earnings, and related hardships. Some nonprofit charities provide programs that address barriers to employment and promote greater self-...

    The Great Recession has led to record job losses, persistently high rates of unemployment, and lower earnings for many households, all of which have led to increased poverty. A number of public and private sources of support may help low-income families cope with the effects of the recession. Cash and in-kind safety net programs such as Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly food stamps), the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), public health insurance programs, such as Medicaid, and Unemployment Insurance (UI) delivered more than $300 billion in benefits to tens of millions of low-income households in 2009.

    In addition, private charitable nonprofit organizations and informal private social support provide assistance both to households that receive public benefits and to those not eligible for public benefits. Private supports help families cope with job loss, diminished earnings, and related hardships. Some nonprofit charities provide programs that address barriers to employment and promote greater self-sufficiency, including job search, education and skill development, literacy, housing assistance, emergency cash, temporary food assistance, and health-related services. Similarly, families, friends, and social networks often provide informal social support for finding a job, paying bills, addressing food or shelter needs, childcare, or otherwise reducing hardship.

    Although some public programs such as SNAP, UI and Medicaid have greatly expanded caseloads and expenditures in response to rising need following the Great Recession, few studies have explored how low-income families have drawn on help from both formal and informal sources of private social support during this period.

    This policy brief examines the sources of support received by households with children and with income near or below the federal poverty line in the Detroit Metropolitan Area during the wake of the Great Recession. We compare use of public and private programs by race and by respondents’ experiences of unemployment during the prior year. We focus on supports potentially available to low-income families through public programs, assistance from charitable nonprofits, and informal sources of private support. Roughly three-quarters of poor and near-poor households with children in the Detroit Metropolitan Area have received some type of public safety net benefit in the previous year and a comparable share reported drawing upon private sources of support during that time. Slightly more than half of all low-income households combined public and private sources. Receipt of public and private sources of support is most prevalent among households with respondents experiencing prolonged periods of unemployment. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Kalil, Ariel; Leininger, Lindsey
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2012

    The Great Recession and its aftermath represent a major social transformation in American life and understanding its consequences on children's health and behavior is vitally important. Researchers and policy makers have long been concerned that economic distress may negatively impact child well-being, in part through family stress and reduced investments in child health and development. However, evidence is scarce because most population-based studies do not include the necessary measures of child health and behavior, family economic conditions, and the potential mediators linking the two. Our new study—the Michigan Recession and Recovery Study Child and Youth Study (MRRS-CYS) represents an important addition to the literature and is one of the few representative studies that will allow us to track the health and well-being of a wide range of children in the aftermath of the Great Recession. In this policy brief, we present preliminary evidence from the first wave of data on children and youth and examine the prevalence of perceived economic hardship and its link with key...

    The Great Recession and its aftermath represent a major social transformation in American life and understanding its consequences on children's health and behavior is vitally important. Researchers and policy makers have long been concerned that economic distress may negatively impact child well-being, in part through family stress and reduced investments in child health and development. However, evidence is scarce because most population-based studies do not include the necessary measures of child health and behavior, family economic conditions, and the potential mediators linking the two. Our new study—the Michigan Recession and Recovery Study Child and Youth Study (MRRS-CYS) represents an important addition to the literature and is one of the few representative studies that will allow us to track the health and well-being of a wide range of children in the aftermath of the Great Recession. In this policy brief, we present preliminary evidence from the first wave of data on children and youth and examine the prevalence of perceived economic hardship and its link with key indicators of children's behavioral health, and their access to food and medical care, both of which may in turn affect health and behavior. (Author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Hahn, Andrew B.; Curnan, Susan P.; Bailis, Lawrence N.; Frees, Joseph; Kingsley, Christopher; LaCava, Lisa A.; Lanspery, Susan; Melchior, Alan L.; Moldow, Erika L.
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2010

    On February 17, 2009, President Barack Obama signed the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act into law, providing $1.2 billion in targeted funding for the workforce investment system to generate employment and training opportunities for economically disadvantaged youth nationwide. Congress and the U.S. Department of Labor encouraged states and local workforce investment boards to use the funds to create meaningful work experiences for these young people in summer 2009.

    This report was prepared by the Center for Youth and Communities of the Heller School for Social Policy and Management at Brandeis University with a grant awarded by the Employment and Training Administration. The report documents the implementation of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act summer youth employment initiative in four featured communities: Chicago, Illinois; Detroit, Michigan; Indianapolis and Marion County, Indiana; Phoenix and Maricopa County, Arizona. The researchers conducted interviews and in-depth site visits over a two-week period in each community and developed individual case...

    On February 17, 2009, President Barack Obama signed the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act into law, providing $1.2 billion in targeted funding for the workforce investment system to generate employment and training opportunities for economically disadvantaged youth nationwide. Congress and the U.S. Department of Labor encouraged states and local workforce investment boards to use the funds to create meaningful work experiences for these young people in summer 2009.

    This report was prepared by the Center for Youth and Communities of the Heller School for Social Policy and Management at Brandeis University with a grant awarded by the Employment and Training Administration. The report documents the implementation of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act summer youth employment initiative in four featured communities: Chicago, Illinois; Detroit, Michigan; Indianapolis and Marion County, Indiana; Phoenix and Maricopa County, Arizona. The researchers conducted interviews and in-depth site visits over a two-week period in each community and developed individual case studies describing the recessionary challenges and strategies in the four communities during summer 2009. These four communities collectively received an infusion of more than $37 million and provided an estimated 16,650 summer jobs for low-income and disadvantaged youth. The report describes the local context for implementation, provides insight into specific assets and innovations that were used to achieve the community goals, and identifies elements of best practices and lessons that may inform future summer youth employment initiatives. (author abstract)

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