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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Roth, Benjamin J.; Gonzales, Roberto G.; Lesniewski, Jacob
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2015

    Just as more poor people in America now live in suburbs than in primary cities, immigrants are more likely to live in suburbs than in the urban core. This study examines the nonprofit safety net in select Chicago suburban municipalities to assess the capacity and accessibility of these service providers relative to the location and need of low-income immigrants. We identify differences between immigrant service providers and mainstream organizations, particularly their willingness and ability to reach out to and serve immigrants and to analyze their role as mediating institutions. (Author abstract)

    Just as more poor people in America now live in suburbs than in primary cities, immigrants are more likely to live in suburbs than in the urban core. This study examines the nonprofit safety net in select Chicago suburban municipalities to assess the capacity and accessibility of these service providers relative to the location and need of low-income immigrants. We identify differences between immigrant service providers and mainstream organizations, particularly their willingness and ability to reach out to and serve immigrants and to analyze their role as mediating institutions. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Gennetian, Lisa A.; Ludwig, Jens; McDade, Thomas; Sanbonmatsu, Lisa
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2013

    In 1987 sociologist William Julius Wilson published his influential book The Truly Disadvantaged, which argued that the growing geographic concentration of poor minority families in urban areas contributed to high rates of crime, out-of-wedlock births, female-headed families, and welfare dependency. The exodus of black working- and middle-class families during the 1960s and 1970s from inner-city areas had adverse effects on the poor families left behind in high-poverty areas, Wilson suggested, by eliminating a “social buffer” that helped “keep alive the perception that education is meaningful, that steady employment is a viable alternative to welfare, and that family stability is the norm, not the exception” (p. 49). Our research on the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development’s (HUD) Moving to Opportunity (MTO) randomized mobility experiment raises questions about whether Wilson was right about the effects of concentrated poverty on the earnings, welfare receipt, or schooling outcomes of low-income families living in such areas. But MTO suggests concentrated poverty does...

    In 1987 sociologist William Julius Wilson published his influential book The Truly Disadvantaged, which argued that the growing geographic concentration of poor minority families in urban areas contributed to high rates of crime, out-of-wedlock births, female-headed families, and welfare dependency. The exodus of black working- and middle-class families during the 1960s and 1970s from inner-city areas had adverse effects on the poor families left behind in high-poverty areas, Wilson suggested, by eliminating a “social buffer” that helped “keep alive the perception that education is meaningful, that steady employment is a viable alternative to welfare, and that family stability is the norm, not the exception” (p. 49). Our research on the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development’s (HUD) Moving to Opportunity (MTO) randomized mobility experiment raises questions about whether Wilson was right about the effects of concentrated poverty on the earnings, welfare receipt, or schooling outcomes of low-income families living in such areas. But MTO suggests concentrated poverty does have extremely important impacts on outcomes not emphasized so much by Wilson – such as physical and mental health. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Bertrand, Marianne; Morse, Adair
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2009

    A number of influential papers find substantial consumption out of tax rebates, with evidence pointing to an important role for liquidity constraints. Sumit Agarwal, Chunlin Liu, and Souleles (2007) directly test the importance of liquidity constraints among credit card borrowers receiving rebates; they find that those most likely to be liquidity constrained show the largest increase in credit card spending from the rebate check. The evidence that constrained individuals are big tax rebate spenders is important for fiscal policy, but also raises questions about the underlying behavioral responses. In particular, many individuals rely on expensive debt, and the lifetime (time-consistent) utility cost from spending rather than paying off such debt can be quite large. This point is particularly relevant for the group of borrowers we consider in this paper, payday loan customers, for whom the cost of marginal debt is extremely high (over 400 percent in APR). (author abstract)

    This article is based on a...

    A number of influential papers find substantial consumption out of tax rebates, with evidence pointing to an important role for liquidity constraints. Sumit Agarwal, Chunlin Liu, and Souleles (2007) directly test the importance of liquidity constraints among credit card borrowers receiving rebates; they find that those most likely to be liquidity constrained show the largest increase in credit card spending from the rebate check. The evidence that constrained individuals are big tax rebate spenders is important for fiscal policy, but also raises questions about the underlying behavioral responses. In particular, many individuals rely on expensive debt, and the lifetime (time-consistent) utility cost from spending rather than paying off such debt can be quite large. This point is particularly relevant for the group of borrowers we consider in this paper, payday loan customers, for whom the cost of marginal debt is extremely high (over 400 percent in APR). (author abstract)

    This article is based on a working paper published by the National Poverty Center at the University of Michigan.

  • Individual Author: Votruba, Mark E.; Kling, Jeffrey R.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2009

    We estimate the effect of neighborhood characteristics on the mortality of poor black male youth in families relocated through the Gautreaux Assisted Housing Program, a residential mobility program implemented in Chicago in 1976. Within our sample (N=2850), post-placement mortality rates were substantially higher than national rates for black male youth and primarily consisted of deaths due to violence (homicides and suicides). Mortality rates were substantially lower among those relocating to Census tracts with higher fractions of residents with college degrees, which suggests that relocating to more advantaged neighborhoods can ameliorate the mortality risks faced by this population. The estimated effect declines over the post-placement period, a result consistent with evidence that Gautreaux families routinely relocated following their initial placement. A causal interpretation of these findings is undermined somewhat by evidence of neighborhood self-selection, however the estimated effect is very robust to inclusion of covariates predictive of placement tract characteristics...

    We estimate the effect of neighborhood characteristics on the mortality of poor black male youth in families relocated through the Gautreaux Assisted Housing Program, a residential mobility program implemented in Chicago in 1976. Within our sample (N=2850), post-placement mortality rates were substantially higher than national rates for black male youth and primarily consisted of deaths due to violence (homicides and suicides). Mortality rates were substantially lower among those relocating to Census tracts with higher fractions of residents with college degrees, which suggests that relocating to more advantaged neighborhoods can ameliorate the mortality risks faced by this population. The estimated effect declines over the post-placement period, a result consistent with evidence that Gautreaux families routinely relocated following their initial placement. A causal interpretation of these findings is undermined somewhat by evidence of neighborhood self-selection, however the estimated effect is very robust to inclusion of covariates predictive of placement tract characteristics. Mortality effect estimates relating to Census tract measures of socioeconomic deprivation other than education were weaker in magnitude and generally insignificant, suggesting that neighborhood levels of human capital more strongly affect the mortality risks faced by this population than racial composition or neighborhood poverty. (author abstract)

    This article is based on a working paper published by the National Poverty Center at the University of Michigan.

  • Individual Author: Winder, Katie; Moffitt, Robert
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2002

    For program analysts working with targeted social assistance programs, a good understanding of the extent of volatility in the caseload is important to budgetary decisions and proper evaluation of the effects of the program. The state and federal welfare reforms of the mid-1990s were associated with declines in participation that were precipitous in the case of cash welfare, but also significant for programs such as Medicaid and Food Stamps. Most research investigating the employment and income consequences of these reforms has focused on those who have left welfare. It is, however, equally important to understand the consequences for those who entered Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) after the reforms and for potentially eligible families who did not enter welfare. The research reported in this article explores postreform patterns of welfare program use, income, and employment among poor families, using data from the Three-City Study, a longitudinal survey of about 2,400 families with children living in low- and moderate-income neighborhoods in Boston, Chicago, and...

    For program analysts working with targeted social assistance programs, a good understanding of the extent of volatility in the caseload is important to budgetary decisions and proper evaluation of the effects of the program. The state and federal welfare reforms of the mid-1990s were associated with declines in participation that were precipitous in the case of cash welfare, but also significant for programs such as Medicaid and Food Stamps. Most research investigating the employment and income consequences of these reforms has focused on those who have left welfare. It is, however, equally important to understand the consequences for those who entered Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) after the reforms and for potentially eligible families who did not enter welfare. The research reported in this article explores postreform patterns of welfare program use, income, and employment among poor families, using data from the Three-City Study, a longitudinal survey of about 2,400 families with children living in low- and moderate-income neighborhoods in Boston, Chicago, and San Antonio. (author introduction)

     

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