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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Laurin, Alexandre; Milligan, Kevin
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2017

    Many Canadian families with young children struggle with the cost of childcare. The tax system helps alleviate some of that burden. At the federal level, the Child Care Expense Deduction (CCED) allows eligible expenses to be deducted from taxable income. In most cases, expenses must be deducted on the return of the lower-income parent, whose claim cannot exceed two-thirds of income. The CCED is also applied provincially to reduce provincial taxes, except in Quebec where parents benefit from either a provincially subsidized childcare space or from an income-tested refundable tax credit. Most income tax systems give childcare expenditures special treatment, with different normative motivations in mind. Our approach is more in line with the optimal tax approach in that we evaluate different ways of subsidizing childcare through their contribution to improving efficiency and equity, rather than apply normative rules to determine a single "right" way to treat childcare in the tax system. (Author introduction)

    Many Canadian families with young children struggle with the cost of childcare. The tax system helps alleviate some of that burden. At the federal level, the Child Care Expense Deduction (CCED) allows eligible expenses to be deducted from taxable income. In most cases, expenses must be deducted on the return of the lower-income parent, whose claim cannot exceed two-thirds of income. The CCED is also applied provincially to reduce provincial taxes, except in Quebec where parents benefit from either a provincially subsidized childcare space or from an income-tested refundable tax credit. Most income tax systems give childcare expenditures special treatment, with different normative motivations in mind. Our approach is more in line with the optimal tax approach in that we evaluate different ways of subsidizing childcare through their contribution to improving efficiency and equity, rather than apply normative rules to determine a single "right" way to treat childcare in the tax system. (Author introduction)

  • Individual Author: Martinson, Melissa L.; Reichman, Nancy E.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2016

    Objectives. To compare associations between socioeconomic status and low birth weight across the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia, countries that share cultural features but differ in terms of public support and health care systems.

    Methods. Using nationally representative data from the United States (n = 8400), the United Kingdom (n = 12018), Canada (n = 5350), and Australia (n = 3452) from the early 2000s, we calculated weighted prevalence rates and adjusted odds of low birth weight by income quintile and maternal education.

    Results. Socioeconomic gradients in low birth weight were apparent in all 4 countries, but the magnitudes and patterns differed across countries. A clear graded association between income quintile and low birth weight was apparent in the United States. The relevant distinction in the United Kingdom appeared to be between low, middle, and high incomes, and the distinction in Canada and Australia appeared to be between mothers in the lowest income quintile and higher-income mothers.

    Conclusions. Socioeconomic...

    Objectives. To compare associations between socioeconomic status and low birth weight across the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia, countries that share cultural features but differ in terms of public support and health care systems.

    Methods. Using nationally representative data from the United States (n = 8400), the United Kingdom (n = 12018), Canada (n = 5350), and Australia (n = 3452) from the early 2000s, we calculated weighted prevalence rates and adjusted odds of low birth weight by income quintile and maternal education.

    Results. Socioeconomic gradients in low birth weight were apparent in all 4 countries, but the magnitudes and patterns differed across countries. A clear graded association between income quintile and low birth weight was apparent in the United States. The relevant distinction in the United Kingdom appeared to be between low, middle, and high incomes, and the distinction in Canada and Australia appeared to be between mothers in the lowest income quintile and higher-income mothers.

    Conclusions. Socioeconomic inequalities in low birth weight were larger in the United States than the other countries, suggesting that the more generous social safety nets and health care systems in the United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia played buffering roles. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Del Boca, Daniela
    Reference Type: Report
    Year: 2015

    In this paper we review recent literature on the link between child care and women’s labor supply. The growing labor market participation of women has raised many concerns since it implies less time spent with the children and greater reliance on external forms of care. Focusing on studies examining the US, Canada and several European countries, we compare and discuss their methodologies and empirical results as well as their implications for child care policies. Most of the results suggest that the impact of child care availability and costs are stronger for mothers' labor supply among more disadvantaged backgrounds. Child care programs aimed at lower income and less educated families have important implications for EU targets on child poverty and mothers’ employment. (author abstract)

    In this paper we review recent literature on the link between child care and women’s labor supply. The growing labor market participation of women has raised many concerns since it implies less time spent with the children and greater reliance on external forms of care. Focusing on studies examining the US, Canada and several European countries, we compare and discuss their methodologies and empirical results as well as their implications for child care policies. Most of the results suggest that the impact of child care availability and costs are stronger for mothers' labor supply among more disadvantaged backgrounds. Child care programs aimed at lower income and less educated families have important implications for EU targets on child poverty and mothers’ employment. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: O'Campo, Patricia; Daoud, Nihaya; Hamilton-Wright, Sarah; Dunn, James
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2015

    Although recent research has documented that partner violence places women at risk of homelessness and material housing instability, sparse evidence yet documents the existence or importance of psychological housing instability for this group. We draw from 45 women's reports of their experiences of housing instability across three periods: while living with their abusive partner, immediately after leaving the partner, and long after leaving. Housing instability—material and especially psychological—was a major concern for women across all periods, along with co-occurring social, familial, financial, mental health, and violence related problems. In the absence of coordinated services models, access to and navigation of available services to address these simultaneous problems posed important challenges for these women. The concept of housing instability should be expanded to include psychological instability, and, for women who are experiencing abuse, should be considered alongside numerous social and health problems that exacerbate housing precarity. (author abstract)

    Although recent research has documented that partner violence places women at risk of homelessness and material housing instability, sparse evidence yet documents the existence or importance of psychological housing instability for this group. We draw from 45 women's reports of their experiences of housing instability across three periods: while living with their abusive partner, immediately after leaving the partner, and long after leaving. Housing instability—material and especially psychological—was a major concern for women across all periods, along with co-occurring social, familial, financial, mental health, and violence related problems. In the absence of coordinated services models, access to and navigation of available services to address these simultaneous problems posed important challenges for these women. The concept of housing instability should be expanded to include psychological instability, and, for women who are experiencing abuse, should be considered alongside numerous social and health problems that exacerbate housing precarity. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Wissel, Sarah
    Reference Type: Conference Paper
    Year: 2015

    This PowerPoint presentation from the 2015 NAWRS workshop provides an overview of the Employment Strategies for Low-Income Adults Evidence Review, a searchable database of studies of programs designed to increase employment for low-income adults conducted in the United States, United Kingdom, or Canada.

    This PowerPoint presentation from the 2015 NAWRS workshop provides an overview of the Employment Strategies for Low-Income Adults Evidence Review, a searchable database of studies of programs designed to increase employment for low-income adults conducted in the United States, United Kingdom, or Canada.

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