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The SSRC Library allows visitors to access materials related to self-sufficiency programs, practice and research. Visitors can view common search terms, conduct a keyword search or create a custom search using any combination of the filters at the left side of this page. To conduct a keyword search, type a term or combination of terms into the search box below, select whether you want to search the exact phrase or the words in any order, and click on the blue button to the right of the search box to view relevant results.

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  • Individual Author: Elgar, Frank J.; Gariepy, Genevieve ; Torsheim, Torbjorn; Currie, Candace
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2017

    A prevailing hypothesis about the association between income inequality and poor health is that inequality intensifies social hierarchies, increases stress, erodes social and material resources that support health, and subsequently harms health. However, the evidence in support of this hypothesis is limited by cross-sectional, ecological studies and a scarcity of developmental studies. To address this limitation, we used pooled, multilevel data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study to examine lagged, cumulative, and trajectory associations between early-life income inequality and adolescent health and well-being. Psychosomatic symptoms and life satisfaction were assessed in surveys of 11- to 15-year-olds in 40 countries between 1994 and 2014. We linked these data to national Gini indices of income inequality for every life year from 1979 to 2014. The results showed that exposure to income inequality from 0 to 4 years predicted psychosomatic symptoms and lower life satisfaction in females after controlling lifetime mean income inequality, national per capita...

    A prevailing hypothesis about the association between income inequality and poor health is that inequality intensifies social hierarchies, increases stress, erodes social and material resources that support health, and subsequently harms health. However, the evidence in support of this hypothesis is limited by cross-sectional, ecological studies and a scarcity of developmental studies. To address this limitation, we used pooled, multilevel data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study to examine lagged, cumulative, and trajectory associations between early-life income inequality and adolescent health and well-being. Psychosomatic symptoms and life satisfaction were assessed in surveys of 11- to 15-year-olds in 40 countries between 1994 and 2014. We linked these data to national Gini indices of income inequality for every life year from 1979 to 2014. The results showed that exposure to income inequality from 0 to 4 years predicted psychosomatic symptoms and lower life satisfaction in females after controlling lifetime mean income inequality, national per capita income, family affluence, age, and cohort and period effects. The cumulative income inequality exposure in infancy and childhood (i.e., average Gini index from birth to age 10) related to lower life satisfaction in female adolescents but not to symptoms. Finally, individual trajectories in early-life inequality (i.e., linear slopes in Gini indices from birth to 10 years) related to fewer symptoms and higher life satisfaction in females, indicating that earlier exposures mattered more to predicting health and wellbeing. No such associations with early-life income inequality were found in males. These results help to establish the antecedent-consequence conditions in the association between income inequality and health and suggest that both the magnitude and timing of income inequality in early life have developmental consequences that manifest in reduced health and well-being in adolescent girls. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Stanley, Nicky ; Humphreys, Cathy
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2017

    'Whole family' interventions for families living with domestic violence and abuse (DVA) are emerging and some international practice examples are available. This study reports a process evaluation of a pilot delivered in Northern England that aimed to work with all members of families experiencing DVA. The evaluation involved analysis of detailed accounts of practice from learning logs and case workbooks as well as interviews with practitioners and family members. The voluntary nature of families' involvement with the pilot, together with an explicit service philosophy of 'meeting families where they are at' appeared successful in engaging families. Pilot staff worked flexibly, seeing family members together and separately, but there was evidence of lower levels of confidence in work with perpetrators. Co-work enabled skills to be transferred to other professionals and social workers increased their use of risk assessment tools in DVA cases. However, there was uncertainty as to whether interagency communication improved across local agencies, and joint protocols and tools were...

    'Whole family' interventions for families living with domestic violence and abuse (DVA) are emerging and some international practice examples are available. This study reports a process evaluation of a pilot delivered in Northern England that aimed to work with all members of families experiencing DVA. The evaluation involved analysis of detailed accounts of practice from learning logs and case workbooks as well as interviews with practitioners and family members. The voluntary nature of families' involvement with the pilot, together with an explicit service philosophy of 'meeting families where they are at' appeared successful in engaging families. Pilot staff worked flexibly, seeing family members together and separately, but there was evidence of lower levels of confidence in work with perpetrators. Co-work enabled skills to be transferred to other professionals and social workers increased their use of risk assessment tools in DVA cases. However, there was uncertainty as to whether interagency communication improved across local agencies, and joint protocols and tools were slow to develop. This study is one of the first evaluations of 'whole family' interventions in DVA, and it illustrates how, when additional resources and organisational support are made available, a non-blaming approach that families find engaging can be developed. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Martin, Anne; Booth, Josephine N.; McGeown, Sarah; Niven, Ailsa; Sproule, John; Saunders, David H.; Reilly, John J.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2017

    Purpose The purposes of this study were to review the evidence on longitudinal associations between child and adolescent obesity and academic achievement and to provide perceptions of adolescents with obesity and their parents on this topic.

    Recent Findings Synthesis of 31 studies (from 17 cohorts) suggested that relationships between obesity and academic achievement are not well established, except for adolescent girls’ maths attainment, potentially mediated by both weight-related bullying and executive cognitive functions. Focus groups with adolescent girls with obesity confirmed experiences of psychosocial distress at school particularly during Physical Education. Adolescents perceived that obesity was not related to academic achievement directly, but by their attitude to school.

    Summary Interventions are warranted to promote psychosocial wellbeing and cognitive abilities linked to academic achievement in adolescent girls with obesity. Physical Education should be a positive experience for children and adolescents with obesity. (Author...

    Purpose The purposes of this study were to review the evidence on longitudinal associations between child and adolescent obesity and academic achievement and to provide perceptions of adolescents with obesity and their parents on this topic.

    Recent Findings Synthesis of 31 studies (from 17 cohorts) suggested that relationships between obesity and academic achievement are not well established, except for adolescent girls’ maths attainment, potentially mediated by both weight-related bullying and executive cognitive functions. Focus groups with adolescent girls with obesity confirmed experiences of psychosocial distress at school particularly during Physical Education. Adolescents perceived that obesity was not related to academic achievement directly, but by their attitude to school.

    Summary Interventions are warranted to promote psychosocial wellbeing and cognitive abilities linked to academic achievement in adolescent girls with obesity. Physical Education should be a positive experience for children and adolescents with obesity. (Author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Brilli, Ylenia; Del Boca, Daniela; Pronzato, Chiara D.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2016

    This paper investigates the effects of public child care availability in Italy in mothers' working status and children's scholastic achievements. We use a newly available dataset containing individual standardized test scores of pupils attending the second grade of primary school in 2009-2010 in conjunction with data on public child care availability. Our estimates indicate a positive and significant effects of child care availability on both mothers' working status and children's Language test scores. We find that a percentage change in public child care coverage increases mothers' probability to work by 1.3 percentage points and children's Language test scores by 0.85 percent of one standard deviation; we do not find any effect on Math test scores. Moreover, the impact of a percentage change in public child care on mothers' employment and children's Language test scores is greater in provinces where child care availability is more limited. (author abstract)

    This paper investigates the effects of public child care availability in Italy in mothers' working status and children's scholastic achievements. We use a newly available dataset containing individual standardized test scores of pupils attending the second grade of primary school in 2009-2010 in conjunction with data on public child care availability. Our estimates indicate a positive and significant effects of child care availability on both mothers' working status and children's Language test scores. We find that a percentage change in public child care coverage increases mothers' probability to work by 1.3 percentage points and children's Language test scores by 0.85 percent of one standard deviation; we do not find any effect on Math test scores. Moreover, the impact of a percentage change in public child care on mothers' employment and children's Language test scores is greater in provinces where child care availability is more limited. (author abstract)

  • Individual Author: Oosterhoff, M.; Joore, M.; Ferreira, I.
    Reference Type: Journal Article
    Year: 2016

    Primary prevention of childhood obesity and related hypertension is warrant given that both risk factors are intertwined and track into adulthood. This systematic review and meta-analysis assess the impact of school-based lifestyle interventions on children's body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure. We searched databases and prior reviews. Eligibility criteria were the following: randomized controlled trial design, evaluation of a school-based intervention, targeting children aged 4-12 years, reporting on BMI and/or related cardiovascular risk factors, reporting data on at least one follow-up moment. The effects on BMI, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were evaluated by means of univariate and multivariate three-level random effects models. A total of 85 RCTs (91 papers) were included in the meta-analyses. In univariate models, the pooled effects were -0.072 for BMI, -0.183 for SBP and -0.071 for DBP. In multivariate analyses, the pooled effects of interventions were -0.054 for BMI, -0.182 for SBP and -0.144 for DBP. Parental involvement...

    Primary prevention of childhood obesity and related hypertension is warrant given that both risk factors are intertwined and track into adulthood. This systematic review and meta-analysis assess the impact of school-based lifestyle interventions on children's body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure. We searched databases and prior reviews. Eligibility criteria were the following: randomized controlled trial design, evaluation of a school-based intervention, targeting children aged 4-12 years, reporting on BMI and/or related cardiovascular risk factors, reporting data on at least one follow-up moment. The effects on BMI, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were evaluated by means of univariate and multivariate three-level random effects models. A total of 85 RCTs (91 papers) were included in the meta-analyses. In univariate models, the pooled effects were -0.072 for BMI, -0.183 for SBP and -0.071 for DBP. In multivariate analyses, the pooled effects of interventions were -0.054 for BMI, -0.182 for SBP and -0.144 for DBP. Parental involvement accentuated the beneficial effects of interventions. School-based lifestyle prevention interventions result in beneficial changes in children's BMI and blood pressure, and the effects on the latter may be stronger than and accrue independently from those in the former. (Author abstract)

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