Skip to main content
Back to Top

Prenatal substance exposure diagnosed at birth and infant involvement with child protective services

Date Added to Library: 
Friday, February 9, 2018 - 10:10
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): 
Individual Author: 
Prindle, John J.
Hammond, Ivy
Putnam-Hornstein, Emily
Reference Type: 
Published Date: 
February 2018
Published Date (Text): 
February 2018
Child Abuse & Neglect
Page Range: 

Infants have the highest rates of maltreatment reporting and entries to foster care. Prenatal substance exposure is thought to contribute to early involvement with child protective services (CPS), yet there have been limited data with which to examine this relationship or variations by substance type. Using linked birth, hospital discharge, and CPS records from California, we estimated the population prevalence of medically diagnosed substance exposure and neonatal withdrawal disorders at birth. We then explored the corresponding rates of CPS involvement during the first year of life by substance type after adjusting for sociodemographic and health factors. Among 551,232 infants born alive in 2006, 1.45% (n = 7994) were diagnosed with prenatal substance exposure at birth; 61.2% of those diagnosed were reported to CPS before age 1 and nearly one third (29.9%) were placed in foster care. Medically diagnosed prenatal substance exposure was strongly associated with an infant’s likelihood of being reported to CPS, yet significant variation in the likelihood and level of CPS involvement was observed by substance type. Although these data undoubtedly understate the prevalence of prenatal illicit drug and alcohol use, this study provides a population-based characterization of a common pathway to CPS involvement during infancy. Future research is needed to explicate the longer-term trajectories of infants diagnosed with prenatal substance exposure, including the role of CPS. (Author abstract)

Geographic Focus: 
Page Count: 
Topical Area: 

The SSRC is here to help you! Do you need more information on this record?

If you are unable to access the full-text of the article from the Public URL provided, please email our Librarians for assistance at

In addition to the information on this record provided by the SSRC, you may be able to use the following options to find an electronic copy from an online subscription service or your local library:

  • Worldcat to find an electronic copy from an online subscription service
  • Google Scholar to discover other full text options